Кафедра госпитальной хирургии ЮУГМУ

Unstable pathomorphism, immune correction and prevention of cardiovascular surgery complications

    Nowadays coagulopathic and reparative complications in cardiovascular surgery remain to be urgent and attract attention of various specialists. These complications carry common features irrespective of their nosology and location of the impairment within the cardiovascular system.

    To a greater extent they are stipulated by the unstable course of the cardiovascular disease (unstable pathomorphism) and comorbidities. The development of such complications are mostly caused by the dysfunction of the reticuloendothelial (monocyte - macrophage) system in the subclinic period, the dysfunction induced by the surgical stress.

    Coagulopathic and tissue dysplasia is primarily formed at the subclinic level and later becomes evident in stressful situations including surgical interventions. It is now possible to reveal the pathology of the functional state of immunocompetent cells by means of modern methods of study (immunography). Immune methods also enable correcting the immunocompetent cell activity in the preoperative period under cytologic control.

    On the one hand, these immune methods are characterized by their multiple impacts, which allow harmonizing the activity of the reticuloendothelial system more effectively. On the other hand, it is difficult to direct this method to a particular target because of the non-selective activity of any immune method. The latter observation makes it difficult to widely use these methods in clinical practice.

    Nevertheless, the lastest advances in molecular biology and means of cytologic control as well as targeted approaches allow expecting that these methods have a great future prospect. Thus, the evaluation of immune methods capacity to stabilize cardiovascular pathomorphism and prevent complications in cardiovascular surgery is of great medical and social importance.

    The purpose of the investigation was to study the patterns of organ-tissue and cellular-humoral features of formation of thrombo- hemorrhagic and reparative complications in traditional cardiovascular surgery and to develop new ways to prevent them.